Ethics Guideline

Ethical Regulations of Society for People, Plants and Environment

Enacted on November 30th, 2006

Article 1 (Purpose) These regulations aim to establish the research ethics of members of Society for People, Plants and Environment and to regulate the matters on establishment and operation of the Research Ethics Committee (hereinafter called the "Committee") for the rapid, fair, and systematic verification when a research misconduct occurs.

Article 2 (Subject of Application) These regulations are applied to all the members of Society for People, Plants and Environment.

Article 3 (Definition of Terminology) "Research misconduct" means the forgery, falsification, plagiarism, unjust indication of author of paper, double publication of research data, and so on through intention or gross negligence not in relation to the purpose of study during the process of proposal, execution, and release of study.
1. "Forgery" means the act to make the nonexistent and untruthful research data or research results and to report them.
2. "Falsification" means the act to change or omit the research data, research process, and research result to be different from the fact and to thereby distort the contents or results of study.
3. "Plagiarism" means the act to present a part of study or argument not conducted by oneself in a paper or writing as if it is one's own study or argument. It is also plagiarism to present a part of study or argument not conducted by oneself as if it is one's own study or argument even though one refers to the source several times in the paper or writing.
4. "Unjust indication of author" means the act to grant the capacity of author of paper to those who did not make any academic contribution to the contents or results of study for the reason of an indication of gratitude or honorable treatment.
5. "Double publication of research data" means the act to publish the data previously published at home and abroad (including the data planned to be published or under examination for publication) as if they are new data. When one intends to make a publication by using the data already released, the one shall provide the information of previous publication at the time of request for publication to the editor of the paper to be published and shall check if the case comes under double publication.

Article 4 (Liberty and Duty of Researcher) The researcher who pursues his or her studies shall have the basic human rights on academic liberty, and shall have the following social responsibility and duty.
1. The researcher shall acknowledge the academic legacy of other groups with different thoughts, religions, ages, gender, social class, and culture without any prejudice.
2. The researcher shall be open to the criticism about his or her studies and shall have the attitude to constantly doubt his or her own knowledge.
3. The researcher shall have the attitude to correct their own errors when he or she finds persuasive evidence refuting his or her arguments.
4. The researcher shall review new research issues, system of thinking, and approaches without prejudice.

Article 5 (Approval of Research Institution) When the approval of research institution is required during the execution of study, the researcher shall obtain the approval by providing accurate information on the study plan before conducting the study. In addition, the researcher shall perform the study according to the approved study plan.

Article 6 (Responsibility for Participants of Study) The researcher shall have the following responsibility for the participants of study.
1. The researcher shall respect the personality, personal rights not to have their privacy be infringed, and right of self-determination of the participants of study.
2. The researcher shall take measures to guarantee the safety and welfare of participants of study, and shall protect the participants of study not to be exposed to danger.
3. The researcher shall not give any psychological and physical damages to the participants of study, and when there is any participant of study who shows an unexpected response of pain, the researcher shall immediately stop the study.

Article 7 (Consent on Participation in Study)
1. The participation in study shall be determined on free will. Therefore, the researcher shall obtain the consent on participation in study of the participants of study. The researcher shall notify the following matters and provide the opportunity to ask questions and receive answers on the matters when obtaining the consent.
① The purpose, expected period, and procedure of study
② The right to participate in the study or to stop the participation in the study midway
③ The results expected when they refuse to participate in the study or stop the participation
④ The potential danger, pain, or hazardous impacts that are expected to influence the voluntarism of participation
⑤ The profits expected to be obtained through participation in the study
⑥ The limitations of guarantee of confidentiality
2. The researcher who conducts an intervention study including an experiment treatment shall inform the participants of the following matters from the beginning of study.
① The true nature of experiment treatment
② The service that will be available to the control group or that will be not available to the control group
③ The method of allotment to the treatment group or control group
④ The alternative which is available when a person doesn't want to participate in the study or wants to stop after the beginning of study

Article 8 (Consent on Voice and Video Recording) When the voice or video of participants of study are needed for the data collection, the researcher shall obtain the consent of participants of study before recording. However, the following is the exceptions.
1. When the contents of study are naturally observed in a public place, or the record is not expected to be used to disclose the identity of a person or to damage the person
2. When the consent on use of record shall be obtained after recording because it is included in the study design

Article 9 (Ex Post Facto Report to Participants of Study)
1. The researcher shall provide the participants of study with the opportunity to obtain the information on the true nature, results, and conclusion of study unless the provision of information injures the scientific value and human value.
2. When the researcher comes to know that the procedure of study has damaged the participants of study, the researcher shall take measures to minimize the damage.

Chapter 2 Establishment of Research Ethics Committee

Article 10 (Function) The committee shall deliberate and resolve the matters of the following numbers related to the research ethics of members of Society for People, Plants and Environment (hereinafter called "this Society").
1. The matters on the establishment of research ethics
2. The matters on prevention and examination of research misconduct
3. The matters on protection of informants and maintenance of confidentiality
4. The matters on the verification of violation of research ethics, treatment of results of verification, and follow-up actions
5. The matters on the measures for recovery of honor of examinee
6. Other matters that the chairman of committee refers to

Article 11 (Composition)
1. The committee shall be composed of 5 or more people including the editing executive director.
2. The chairman shall represent the committee, and shall be the editing executive director. The term of office of chairman and committee members is the same as the term of office of pertinent duty.
3. In order to handle the general work of committee, one assistant administrator among the committee members may be designated by the chairman.
4. The chairman may appoint a separate expert committee member by listening to the opinion of the committee.

Article 12 (Meeting)
1. The chairman shall convene a meeting when needed, and shall be the chairman of the meeting.
2. The meeting shall resolve by the attendance of the majority of current members and the approval of the majority of attending members unless there is a special regulation. But, a letter of attorney shall be acknowledged as attendance in the formation of committee but shall not be given a voting right.
3. When the committee acknowledges that it is needed, the committee may let an interested person attend to listen to his or her opinion.
4. The meeting shall be not opened in principle.
5. The committee member related to the study which is the subject of examination may not participate in the pertinent meeting.

Article 13 (Authority and Duty of Committee)
1. The committee may demand the informants, examinees, testifiers, and references to attend and to submit data during the process of examination.
2. When an examinee refuses to attend or to submit data without just reason, the examinee may be presumed to have acknowledged the fact of suspicion.
3. The committee may take a considerable measure to prevent the destruction, damage, concealment, or falsification of research record or evidence.
4. The members of committee shall observe confidentiality of general matters related to deliberation.

Chapter 3 Verification of Violation of Research Ethics

Article 14 (Report of Misconduct and Receipt) The informant may report to the Executive Office of Society for People, Plants and Environment or the Executive Office of Editorial Board in person, by phone or e-mail, or in writing, and shall report to the name of himself or herself. But, when an anonymous report is made including the title of paper (or the title of research task) and concrete details and evidence of misconduct in writing or by e-mail, it shall receive the treatment equivalent to that of the report to the name of the informant.

Article 15 (Examination of Misconduct) When there is a concrete report or a considerable suspicion, the committee shall examine if there is a misconduct.

Article 16 (Demand for Attendance and Submission of Data)
1. The committee may demand the informants, examinees, testifiers, and references to attend for a statement, and in this case, the examinees shall accede to the demand without fail.
2. The committee may demand the examinees to submit data, and may seize or keep the pertinent research data on the person related to misconduct with the approval of the director of the pertinent research institution for the preservation of evidential data.

Article 17 (Protection of Rights of Informants and Examinees and Strict Observance of Confidentiality)
1. The identity of informants shall not be exposed directly or indirectly in any case, and attention shall be paid for the honor or rights of examinees not to be infringed until the verification on the presence or absence of misconduct is completed.
2. All the matters related to examination shall be confidential, and the one who has participated in the examination directly or indirectly shall not unjustly disclose any of the information obtained during the process of examination and performance of duties. But, when there is a right necessity of disclosure, the information may be disclosed through the resolution of committee. .

Article 18 (Challenge, Exclusion, Evasion)
1. When there is a reason that makes it difficult to expect fairness to a member of committee, the informant or examinee may apply for challenge by giving the reason. When the application for challenge is acknowledged, the member of committee for whom the challenge is applied shall be excluded from the pertinent examination.
2. The one who has a direct interest with the pertinent examination may not take part in the deliberation, resolution, and examination of the case.

Article 19 (Guarantee of Opportunity of Objection and Explanation) The committee shall provide an opportunity of objection and enough explanation to the examinee reported for the violation of research ethics.

Article 20 (Judgment)
1. The committee shall decide the contents and procedure of examination on the basis of the contents of objection or explanation.
2. The judgment of research misconduct shall be made by the attendance of majority of current members and the approval of two-thirds of attending members.

Chapter 4 Follow-Up Actions

Article 21 (Follow-Up Actions)
1. When there is a judgment of confirmation of research misconduct, the restraints of the following numbers may be put alone or together.
① Nonpermission of publication of paper with research misconduct
② In case of published paper, the deletion from the list of paper of journal and notification of the fact of cancelation of publication through the Website of Society and journal
③ Notification to the members and related academic institutions
④ Deprivation or suspension of membership
⑤ Other proper measures
2. The notification of Clause 1 Number 2 shall include the name of author, title of paper, volume (issue) where the paper is published, date of cancelation, reason for cancelation, and so on.
3. The period of deprivation or suspension of Clause 1 Number 4 shall be determined by the committee according to the heaviness of misconduct.
4. The committee may deprive or suspend the membership of the one who made a report which is different from the truth or spread false information with intention or gross negligence in relation to the research ethics of this Society.

Article 22 (Notification of Results) The chairman of committee shall notify the determination of committee on the results of examination in writing to the related persons such as informants and examinees immediately.

Article 23 (Reexamination) When the examinee or informant disobeys the determination of committee, he or she may request for the reexamination to the committee in writing within 14 days after the day when he or she received the notification of Article 22.

Article 24 (Follow-Up Actions Such as Recovery of Honor) When it is decided that there has been no research misconduct as a result of examination, the committee may make efforts to recover the honor of examinee and take a proper follow-up action.

Article 25 (Storage and Disclosure of Records) 
1. The records related to examination shall be stored for 5 years from the point of time when the examination ends.
2. The results after the judgment ended shall be reported to the Board of Standing Directors, and the information related to identity such as the list of informants, examiners, testifiers, reference, and those who participated in the consultation may be excluded from the subject of disclosure by the resolution of committee when the information can give disadvantage to the person directly involved.

Additional Rule

1. These regulations shall be implemented from November 30th, 2006.